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SeeR: Simulated Annealing-based Routing in Opportunistic Mobile Networks

Architecture of SeeR
Architecture of SeeR
Opportunistic Mobile Networks (OMNs) are characterized by intermittent connectivity among nodes. In many scenarios, the nodes attempt at local decision making based on greedy approaches, which can result in getting trapped at local optimum. Moreover, for efficient routing, the nodes often collect and exchange lot of information about others. To alleviate such issues, we present SeeR, a simulated annealing-based routing protocol for OMNs. In SeeR, each message is associated with a cost function, which is evaluated by considering its current hop-count and the average aggregated inter-contact time of the node. A node replicates a message to another node, when the latter offers a lower cost. Otherwise, the message is replicated with decreasing probability. Moreover, SeeR works based solely upon local observations. In particular, a node does not track information about other nodes, and, therefore, reduces the risk of privacy leaks unlike many other protocols. We evaluated the performance of SeeR by considering several real-life traces under plausible conditions. Experimental results show that, in the best case, SeeR can reduce the average message delivery latency by about 58%, when compared to other popular routing protocols.

Full-text of the article is available via ResearchGate. The source code of SeeR is also available.

If you are using SeeR, please cite it as:

B. K. Saha, S. Misra, and S. Pal, "SeeR: Simulated Annealing-based Routing in Opportunistic Mobile Networks," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 2876–2888, Oct. 2017.


  1. I have some problems since I want to add a malicious group of nodes as blackhole nodes into ONE and compare the network performance without blackhole nodes. I am strugling to get it started with introducing the blackhole nodes. Can you please help with any idea on how to go about it.

    1. A blackhole does not forward any message to other nodes. To achieve this, create a new routing class (by copying from an existing one), introduce a state variable indicating whether or not a router is blackhole, and disable the block of code for message replication accordingly.


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